Second Sulhu Training 1 (Alternative Dispute Resolution Training)

Activity Report: Second Sulhu Training 1 (Alternative Dispute Resolution Training)
Date: 10th – 11th October 2023
Location: Maiduguri, Borno State
Participants: Group of Imams, Scholars, Community Leaders, Youth Leaders and Women Leaders from Damboa, Kaga, Kakuwa, Mafa, and Mongunu, DAAC Partners Maiduguri Council of Ulama, Borno State BRAVE-TAN alumni

As part of the new phase of the CAN project, titled ‘Support for Sulhu Process,’ the first Sulhu training named “Developing Community Resilience and Moving Forward Steps” (DECORAMS) took place in Maiduguri from 10th to 11th June 2023. This training falls under the third component of the new CAN project, which is funded by the Swiss FDFA and commenced on March 1, 2023, for 15 months.


  • To explore contemporary issues related to sulhu (reconciliation) and reintegration processes within the affected communities.
  • To foster community support for reconciliation efforts, discourage the victims’ desire for revenge, and facilitate the restoration of peace in the affected communities.
  • To raise awareness about the benefits of sulhu, reconciliation, and peace based on Islamic teachings.
  • To familiarize participants with various approaches to Sulhu, emphasizing the importance of joint communal responsibility in restoring peace.

Participants for the training underwent a careful selection process, facilitated by the Borno State Council of Ulama, MSSN, BRAVE-TAN alumni, and other DAAC associates. Five communities, namely Damboa, Kaga, Kukawa, Mafa, and Mongunu were chosen based on their involvement in ongoing reconciliation and reintegration efforts. From each community, ten individuals were selected, leading to a total of 50 participants. These participants included Imams, Scholars, Community Leaders, Women Leaders, and Youths residing in the selected communities.


The “Developing Community Resilience and Moving Forward Steps (DECORAMS)” training was held in Maiduguri, Borno State, on the 10th and 11th of October 2023. The training aimed to address critical issues related to community resilience and reconciliation in the context of ongoing challenges on reintegration, insurgency and violent extremism. This comprehensive report will provide insights into the training’s structure, content, and impact assessment.


The DECORAMS training program was meticulously designed to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the challenges faced by communities in Maiduguri, Borno State on reintegration process of ex-fighters of BH. It consisted of several key components:


The training was initiated with a pre-evaluation survey. This served as a baseline assessment to gauge participants’ knowledge, perceptions, and concerns regarding reconciliation, communities’ grievances, and how to prevent vengeance in the post-conflict communities.


The core of the training included four presentations:

  • Positive Reconciliation Part One: This session aimed to introduce the concept of positive reconciliation and its significance in conflict resolution. This presentation covered four pillars of reconciliation, design of reconciliation, several mechanisms and tools used in some conflict regions to resolve the situation, etc.
  • Positive Reconciliation Part Two: Building upon the previous presentation, this session delved deeper into practical approaches to achieving reconciliation within communities. This included principles and tools of reconciliation, timing reconciliation, dealing with the past resolution and reconciliation project, etc.
  • Grievances and Drivers to Violent Extremism: This presentation shed light on the root causes of grievances and how they contribute to the spread of violent extremism.
  • The Cost of Insurgency and Violent Approaches to Reform and Resolving Grievances: The presenter explained that the insurgency and violent approaches often result in the loss of trust among people, destruction of life and property, creating internally displaced persons, spread of diseases, importation and exportation has been blocked at some parts of the region, loss of stability in society, increased number of orphans and widows, distortion of religion, increased Poverty, crippled economic growth ,trauma in the victims, etc. This presentation explored the consequences of insurgency and violent methods used to address grievances, emphasizing the need for alternative solutions.

Group Discussions and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs)

The training incorporated group discussions and four FGDs that provided participants with opportunities to engage actively with the content. The FGDs were structured as follows:

i. Perception of Reconciliation Based on Community Groups: Participants were divided into community groups to discuss their perceptions of reconciliation.

Meaning of Reconciliation to Different Communities in Maiduguri, Borno State

Ethnic integration054.2052.47.3
Forgetting the past11.57.81115.68.5
Resolving differences055.76.96.403
Examining the Past043.403032.8
Economic development064.
Abolition of discrimination033.74.44.5
Human rights042.8044.73.7
Other meanings3.70101

Based on the information presented in the table above, four communities namely Damboa, Kaga, Kukawa and Mafa hold the belief that reconciliation is primarily about forgiveness, while one community considers it to be more closely related to peace.

ii. Perception of Reconciliation Based on Status Category: This FGD encouraged participants to analyze reconciliation from different status perspectives.

Meaning of Reconciliation to Different Statuses in the Community

ScholarsCommunity LeadersYouthsWomenImam
Ethnic integration5.
Forgetting the past096.712.31211.7
Resolving differences3.
Examining the Past1.
Economic development043.
Abolition of discrimination3.703032.23.6
Human rights3.
Other meanings4.

According to the table above, scholars, Imams, and youths perceive reconciliation as equivalent to peace, whereas community leaders and women leaders view it primarily as forgiveness.

Questions Given to Each Community Group:

Each community was given these questions to stimulate critical thinking and discussion:

  1. Are there any specific cultural or religious factors that might influence the community’s acceptance or rejection of former combatants?
  2. What are the main concerns and fears expressed by community members regarding the reintegration of BH ex-fighters?
  3. How do you think the reintegration processes can be improved to address the needs and concerns of both the community and the ex-fighters?
  4. What are the potential benefits and challenges of integrating BH ex-fighters back into the community?
  5. How can the community actively contribute to the successful reintegration of BH ex-fighters?
  6. What support mechanisms do you think should be put in place to ensure the long-term success of the reintegration processes and communities’ peaceful future?
  7. What role do you think traditional leaders, religious figures, and community organizations should play in the reintegration efforts?

The FGD responses will share immediately after the transcription is finished.

Developing an Action Plan for Each Community:

Participants were tasked with formulating actionable plans for their respective communities to promote reconciliation and resilience.

Action Plan for Each Community

KukawaTraining the Islammiyah teachers, youth, and all Muslim activists on the importance of sulhu.Organizing lectures on sulhu in IslamAll the participant of the training from Kukwa15/02/23Lunch
Participant allowance
Resource persons allowance
MafaTeaching community members to be acquainted with the sulhu process system.workshopAll the participant of the training30/02/23WelfareEffective reconciliation
Kagatraining both the victims and the repentant on the important of reconciationPublic LecturesAll the participant of the training from kaga17/02/23Hall, material, transport,welfare, etc.Good relationship
MongunuTraining community on the process of sulhuPublic lecturesAll the participant of the training19/02/23Lunch
Participant allowance
Resource persons allowance
DamboaTraining victims and offenders on how to live peacefullyLectures
All the participant of the training20/02/23Lunch
Participant allowance
Resource persons allowance

Post-Evaluation Survey

The training concluded with a post-evaluation survey, allowing for a comparative assessment of participants’ knowledge and attitudes before and after the training.

Impact Assessment

The impact assessment of the DECORAMS training is crucial to understand the effectiveness and outcomes of the program. The following key points outline the impact assessment:

  1. Knowledge and Awareness: The evaluation survey revealed a significant improvement in participants’ knowledge and awareness of reconciliation, grievances, and the consequences of insurgency. This indicates that the training successfully imparted essential information.
  2. Change in Attitudes: Through group discussions and FGDs, participants had the opportunity to express their views and engage in constructive dialogue. This likely resulted in a positive shift in attitudes towards reconciliation and community resilience.
  3. Action Plans: The development of action plans for each community signifies a tangible outcome of the training. These plans could serve as a blueprint for local initiatives aimed at promoting reconciliation and resilience.
  4. Networking and Collaboration: The training provided a platform for participants to network and collaborate with individuals from diverse backgrounds, fostering a sense of unity and shared purpose.
  5. Long-Term Impact: The true impact of the DECORAMS training will be assessed over the long term. Monitoring and evaluation activities in the coming months and years will provide insights into the sustainability and effectiveness of the knowledge and skills gained during the training.

The training received overwhelmingly positive feedback from all participants.

  1. The participants successfully addressed the main concern that DAAC had about the Sulhu and reintegration process. That is sensitizing the community about importance of Sulhu and the consequences of rejecting reintegration
  2. There was agreed support from the participants for any future interventions proposed by DAAC, in arrangement with the training discussions.
  3. The participants expressed a strong determination to be committed to one-to-one care developments and ensuring long-lasting peace in their communities.


The training had a profound and positive impact on a community leader. In light of the first training session, this particular leader expressed his heartfelt acceptance of ex-BH fighters who had been successfully reintegrated into his community. Remarkably, he even extended his forgiveness to the individual who had previously burned down his home, causing him to lose all his belongings, including his important credentials. This leader’s ability to forgive and move forward is truly inspiring, showcasing the transformative power of the training.


In conclusion, the DECORAMS training in Maiduguri, Borno State, has taken significant steps in equipping participants with the knowledge and tools needed to build community resilience and promote reconciliation. The impact assessment highlights positive changes in knowledge, attitudes, and the development of actionable plans for community improvement. This training sets the foundation for ongoing efforts to address the challenges posed by insurgency and violent extremism in the region.